An inclinometer or clinometer is for measuring angles of slope (or tilt), elevation or depression of an object with respect to gravity. It is also known as a tilt meter, tilt indicator, slope alert, slope gauge, gradient meter, gradiometer, level gauge, level meter, declinometer, and pitch & roll indicator. Clinometers measure both inclines (positive slopes, as seen by an observer looking upwards) and declines (negative slopes, as seen by an observer looking downward) using three different units of measure: degrees, percent, and topo. Astrolabes are inclinometers that were used for navigation and locating astronomical objects from ancient times to the Renaissance.


Inclinometers are used to monitor subsurface movements and deformations. 

Typical applications include:

Detecting zones of movement and establish whether movement is constant, accelerating, or responding to remedial measures.

Checking that deformations are within design limits, that struts and anchors are performing as expected, and that adjacent buildings are not affected by ground movements.

Verifying stability of dams, dam abutments, and upstream slopes during and after impoundment.

Monitoring settlement profiles of embankments, foundations, and other structures (horizontal inclinometer).
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